Things that go Boom: Expanding the Demolitions Skill

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 8, 2019 - 5:43pm
In conducting my research on landmines, I started looking into demolitions as well and found a lot of useful information on this topic.

So, instead of trying to write a combined story on explosives -- such as kaboomite -- and mines, I'm planning to create them as separate stories.

Here now, is a look at expanding the demolition skill and adding some other explosives.
Joe Cabadas
Comments:

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 11:49am
Yes, it's probably inapporpriate to be working on a story about demolitions today, Easter Sunday, in the wake of the massacre in Shri Lanka, but it is the next story that I am working on.
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 22, 2019 - 4:08pm

TornadiumD-20

TD-20 is a modified version of TD-19. Using ultra-high strength federanium strips, it is constructed in pre-made shaped charges.

TD-20 does 3d10 points of STA damage (double that amount for structures) for a 50-gram charge. For every additional 50 grams, it does an additional 15 points of STA damage or 30 structural points to vehicles, buildings and other structures.

The explosive iss old in set shapes and weights so a Demolition specialist cannot reshape it. At the base of the charges is a thin plastic disc; once this covering is peeled away, it’s sticky base can be attached to almost anything.

As a shaped charge, TD-20 only explodes in only one direction. Thus, with a small explosion of less than 1 kilogram, the user can remain one meter away from the explosion and suffer no damage whatsoever. A cone of TD-20 is perfect to attach to walls, floors, doors, etc. and blow an entry into another room.

If anyone is foolish enough to try to throw a charge of TD-20 as a weapon, use the Area Effect Weapon Miss Diagram to determine the direction of the blast.

A thrown TD-20 charge inflicts only half its normal damage to bio-forms and structures. The blast range is identical to that of TD-19. As the charges get progressively larger, does take more explosive to increase the damage. It is also recommended that the setter moves much further away than 1 meter with charges that are more than 1 kilogram because the concussive force of the explosion.

TD-19 and TD-20 use the same detonation devices.

Demolition specialists have used TD-20 to create improvised claymore mines. This is done by propping the explosive up. Instead of attaching the sticky base to a wall or structure, it faces outward. A bag, or pouch, or some other container – that holds ball bearings, nails, broken glass or the like – is then attached to the sticky base.

An explosion of TD-20 will then fling the shrapnel out to double the blast range. It will cause 8d10 points of damage to targets within a 45-degree cone. The chance to-hit is equal to the Demolition setter’s skill level and is modified by cover, target size, target speed, etc. Roll separately for each target to see if it is hit and separately for any resulting damage.

Plastid

Stabilized plastic acid is illegal on most planets. Only highly placed Star Lawmen and powerful crooks have access to it. It usually comes in a plastic or ceramic alloy wrapand is shaped like thick spaghetti. One hundred grams of plastid applied to a lock and ignited will melt the lock in one turn (five turns for heavy duty locks).

Plastid must beapplied directly to the material it is to melt; it cannot be thrown.

Plastid only affects plastics and metals. Special detonators that use acidic chemicalreactions are required to activate a plastid charge. Plastics or metals that have been laminated with glass or ceramics are not affected by plastid.

Determinations of quantities needed for large-scale melting are left to the discretion of the referee.

 

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 22, 2019 - 4:16pm

Revised 4/22/2019 at approx. 7:10 pm EST

Other Explosives

Black Powder

Made from Sulphur, charcoal, and saltpeter (potassium nitrate), black powder is the original gunpowder. First developed in China around the ninth century, it was one of the few known explosives until the nineteenth century.

It has been used for fireworks but also for muzzle-loading weapons. Weapons using black powder also create a cloud of smoke that reduces the shooter’s accuracy while also easily revealing the attacker’s position.[1]

It is considered to be a low explosive because it tends to deflagrate (burn violently) rather than detonate. It has little water resistance and is highly flammable. If you are playing a game where the characters find themselves needing to use large quantities of black powder as an explosive.

Gunpowder would be sold in in water-resistant powder horns or flasks for individual shooters. Larger powder kegs are sold for use with cannons or blasting.

The horns or flasks contained a small amount of powder, probably good for 10 to 15 shots.  The flasks could be very utilitarian to very elaborate in design. Mishaps were known where the powder in the flask could explode if exposed to sparks. This mishap could occur when the shooter rolls a “00,” which is an automatic miss. An exploding flask would cause 4d10 of fragmentation damage to characters within a 1-meter blast radius.

For cannons, blackpowder was stored in powder kegs – small casks designed to limit damage from accidental explosions. Some early kegs were 8.75-feet tall and 6.5-feet in diameter, carrying 50 pounds, while larger kegs were 13-feet tall by 11-feet diameter, with 100 pounds of powder.

Powder kegs had strappings made of reed or sapling wood instead of metal bands in order to reduce the chance of sparks, which might ignite the powder.[2]

Exposure to fire, electricity, or a misfire explosion (a roll of 99-00) will cause black powder to explode. A single keg that explodes in this manner deals 5d10 points of fire damage to anyone within a 3-meter primary blast radius. Characters can make a Reaction Speed check for half damage.[3]

The secondary blast radius is out to five meters, objects and characters take 2d10 points of fire damage; characters can make an RS check to avoid damage all together.

If another powder keg is within the primary blast radius, there is a 40 percent chance that it will ignite in a sympathetic explosion, which may set up a chain reaction of other powder kegs (if they are close by) exploding. For each exploding powder keg, add 25 pointsof fire damage and 1d5 turns to any fire.

If the keg explodes in an area with other flammable materials – such as on a wooden ship – it may start an uncontrollable blaze.

Blasting powder kegs for use in mining or quarrying were often larger than the kegs for shipping and storing powder for firearms. Black powder was used for early hand grenades (please see the story regarding hand grenades).

The amount of black powder used by a muzzle-loading cannon depended upon its size and technological level. For example, a British 68 pound naval cannon would use a 16 pound charge, but it could take 25 pounds of powder. A French 12 pound artillery piece would use a 4 pound charge for 1,000 yards of range. A U.S. Civil War 12 pound howitzer used only 1 pounds of black powder and had a 600 yard range.[4]

Setting fire to an ounce of gunpowder causes it to flare for 1 turn, shedding bright light in a 10-meter radius and dim light for an additional 10 meters.[5]

 



[1] “Black Powder Explosion,”https://www.reddit.com/r/Pathfinder_RPG/comments/1aaapj/black_powder_explosion/.

[2] Ted Bacyk, David Bacyk, and Tom Rowe, Gun Powder Cans & Kegs, Andrew Mowbray, Volume 1 1998, Volume 22005.

[3] “Gunpowder, Keg,”https://www.dndbeyond.com/equipment/gunpowder-keg

[4] “How much black powder would you use to lad and fire a 12 pounder cannon?”https://www.quora.com/How-much-black-powder-would-you-use-to-load-and-fire-a-12-pounder-cannon

[5] “Gunpowder, Keg,”https://www.dndbeyond.com/equipment/gunpowder-keg

 

 

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 9:53pm
Ah, here is something I was thinking regarding the black powder kegs. They may have a certain volume, but the powder probably is a lot lighter! 

If it really weighed as much as I calculated, I can't see how it could be loaded on a ship or moved!

I'll have to go back and recalculate.
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 9:55pm
Here's Wikipedia to the rescue:

Standard full barrels contained 100 pounds of gunpowder, half barrels 50 pounds, and so on down to 2-pound barrels for sportsmen...

I didn't find this information before but now things make a lot more sense!
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 10:25pm
From D&D Beyond:

Gunpowder is chiefly used to propel a bullet out of the barrelof a pistol or rifle, or it is formed into a bomb. Gunpowder is sold in smallwooden kegs and in water-resistant powder horns.

Setting fire to a containerfull of gunpowder can cause it to explode, dealing fire damage to creatureswithin 10 feet of it (3d6 for a powder horn, 7d6 for a keg). A successful DC 12Dexterity saving throw halves the damage. Setting fire to an ounce of gunpowdercauses it to flare for 1 round, shedding bright light in a 30-foot radius anddim light for an additional 30feet.[1]



[1]“Gunpowder, Keg,” https://www.dndbeyond.com/equipment/gunpowder-keg



Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 10:28pm
From Reddit Pathfinder:

Black Powder: Blackpowder is the key explosive component within a firearm that enables it tofunction, but in larger amounts this alchemical material can be quitedestructive on its own as well. A single dose of black powder is enough topower a single shot from most one-handed and two-handed firearms, while 10doses are required to fire a cannon. Black powder is often stored andtransported in kegs (which hold 100 doses), but in this quantity the powderitself becomes dangerous. Exposure to fire, electricity, or a misfire explosioncauses black powder to explode—a single keg that explodes in this manner deals5d6 points of fire damage to anyone within a 20-foot burst (DC 15 Reflex half).Storing black powder in a powder horn protects the powder from explosion.[1]



[1]“Black Powder Explosion,” https://www.reddit.com/r/Pathfinder_RPG/comments/1aaapj/black_powder_explosion/

 


Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 21, 2019 - 10:28pm
OK, the D&D and Pathfinder references give me a better idea how to create a black powder explosion in SF terms. 
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 23, 2019 - 6:46am

Nitroglycerin

Nitroglycerin is a powerful explosive that has been used as an ingredient in dynamite, guncotton (nitrocellulose). In another form it is a medicine called glyceryl trinitrate,  that eases cardiac pain.

With the molecular formula C3H5(ONO2)3, nitroglycerin is composed of 18.5 percent nitrogen and contains enough oxygen to oxidize the carbon and hydrogen atoms during an explosion. The detonation of nitroglycerin generates gases that would occupy more than 1,200 times the its original volume while raising temperatur eto about 5,000 °C (9,000 °F), notes the Encyclopedia Britannica.

“The overall effect is the instantaneous development of a pressure of 20,000 atmospheres; the resulting detonation wave moves at approximately 7,700 meters per second – more than 17,000 miles per hour,” the encyclopedia continued. “Nitroglycerin is extremely sensitive to shock and to rapid heating; it begins to decompose at 50–60 °C (122–140 °F) and explodes at 218 °C (424 °F).[1]

Nitroglycerin is rapidly absorbed through the skin and results in a marked fall in blood pressure and a violent throbbing headache – treat it as a S2/T6 poison. A character would than receive a -10 percent modifier for all skill and ability checks for 10 hours. These effects ordinarily are not dangerous but are exceedingly uncomfortable.[2]

A 100 milliliter amount of nitroglycerin would cause a 4d10 point explosion (STA or SP), damaging anything within a 1 meter radius. For each additional 100 milliliters, increase the damage by 10 points, extend the primary blast radius by 1 meter and add a secondary blast radius.

A 1 liter, a nitroglycerin explosion would have a primary blast ring of 10 meters, a secondary ring at 15 meters, and would do 4d10 + 90 points of damage. For every additional 500 milliliters, add 10 points of damage and extend the primary blast radius by 2 meter, adjusting the secondary blast ring accordingly to a maximum of 4d10 + 400 points of damage and a primary blast radius of 300 meters.

Guncotton

Discovered by German chemist Christian Schönbein in 1846 during an accident, guncotton or nitrocellulose is a mild explosive that has been used in rockets, propellants but also for printing ink bases, leather finishing and other uses.

It is made with ordinary cotton that is treated with concentrated nitric and sulfuric acids. It ignites easily and was adopted by the military as a replacement for gunpowder. During World War I it was used in torpedo warheads, some grenades, and as a blasting explosive to destroy bridges.[3]

If guncotton ignites, treat it as a 4d10 flaming explosive per 250 grams with a primary blast radius of 3 meters and a secondary blast radius of 5 meters. It cause shalf-damage to structures and will burn out within a turn. For each additional 250 grams, add 20 points of damage and extend the primary blast radius by 1 meter and adjust the secondary blast radius accordingly.



[1] “Nitrogylcerin, chemical compound,” Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/science/nitroglycerin

[2] Muehlberger, C.W. “The Handling of Explosives and Suspected Bombs,” Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, Vol. 31, May-June 1940.

[3] Freemantle, Michael. “Guncotton or nitrocellulose,” ChemistryWorld.com, 28 October 2015.

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 23, 2019 - 8:04am

Dynamite

Known as a "high-order explosive" or "high explosive," dynamite is a fairly stable explosive. It requires an additional charge of high-temperature, high-pressure gases with an accompanying shockwave traveling at the speed of sound to before it will detonate.

For example, it can be dropped or even burned in a fire without exploding. Among its drawbacks, include: obsolete styles of dynamite would freeze at low temperatures and would not detonate; and it would have a recommended shelf life of about a year.

Dynamite prefers to be stored in a cool, humidity controlled environment, while a hot and humid environment would cause it to degrade faster. Older dynamite tends to weep nitroglycerine which canpool at the bottom of a container or even crystalize on the sticks, making them extremely dangerous to use. For this reason, they are banned on a number of Frontier worlds as an obsolete explosive.[1]

For ease of conversion, a Frontier stick of dynamite – which might be made on less developed worlds –  would weigh 200 grams. Various detonators can be used to cause it to explode, including lighting a simple fuse. Typical fuses are 12 seconds (two combat turns) long or even up to several minutes.

A character can cut the fuse, requiring a Dexterity check, to shorten it to one combat turn so it would be similar to a grenade. If the skill check fails, when the stick is used, there is a 50 percent chance it is too short, and will blow up “in the user’s face” or will exploded on the second turn. In order to prevent player abuse, only have the character make the Dexerity check on the turn he has declared he has lit the fuse and is throwing it!

If a character throws a stick of dynamite as a grenade, it will cause 2d10 points of blast damage to characters and structures within a 1 meter blast radius and half damage out to a 2 meter secondary blast radius. If used as a set charge, it causes 25 points of structural damage.

A character could wrap several sticks of dynamite together, up to three, to be used as a thrown weapon. Each additional stick would cause an added 15 points of damage and extend the primary and secondary blast radii by 1 meter.

For larger explosions, it is possible to wire several sticks of dynamite together. Each stick will either extend the primary and secondary blast radii by 1 meter or add 20 points of damage. The effect of each stick depends upon the Demolition specialist’s choice, requiring a successful Setting Charges check.

Similar to Tornadium D-19 and other explosives, by about the 5 kilogram range, it will take double the amount of dynamite to achieve a boost in damage power and increasing the blast radius – i.e. two additional sticks of dynamite to either add 15 points of damage or add 1 meter to the blast radii.

By the 10 kilogram range, it will take four times the amount of dynamite (four sticks) to increase damage by 15 points or extend the blast radii by 1 meter.

If a character attempts to use old dynamite – where nitroglycerin has clearly begun to weep from the stick – he must pass a Dexterity check to avoid an accidental explosion.

TNT

As noted earlier, TNT is not the same as dynamite, but assume its explosive effects are the same. Although the recommended shelf life is about a year, TNT can actually last indefinitely.

It is also a high-order explosive, requiring a blasting cap – or another high explosive event such as other sticks of TNT – before it will detonate. And, unlike dynamite, it will not weep nitroglycerin.

A Frontier stick of TNT would weigh 200 grams with five sticks equally 1 kilogram. One stick of TNT



[1]Dozolme, Philippe. “The Explosives Used in Mining,” The Balance, https://www.thebalance.com/explosives-used-in-mining-an-overview-2367467, updated 21 June 2018.

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 23, 2019 - 11:27am

C4/Semtex

An early plastic explosive, C4 blocks resemble slabs of wax. Hard and translucent when cold, these explosives warm up when kneaded, and then can be coaxed to take various shapes.

On theF rontier, C4 would be sold in 1 kilogram blocks. An “open air” blast would cause 10d10 points of damage to characters, animals, robots, etc., but only half-damage to structures. A set charge will do 150 structure points. A block of C4 has a primary blast radius of 2 meters and a secondary blast radius of 3meters – half-damage to characters and one-fourth damage to structures.

For each block of C4 added, it will do an additional 30 points of damage in an open air blast while a set charge will do an additional 50 SP worth of damage. The primary blast radius increases by 1 meter per block added; adjust the secondaryblast radius accordingly.

Similar to other explosives, by about the 5 kilogram range, it will take double the amount of C4 to achieve a boost in damage power and increasing the blast radius – i.e. two additional blocks. By the 10 kilogram range, it will take four times the amount of C4 (four blocks) to increase damage and extend the blast radii.

Detonating Cord

Also called “detcord” or primer cord or sun cord, is an explosive in a rope-like form. Technically, det cord doesn’t explode—but it burns so fast – nearly 8,000 metersper second – that it might as well be exploding.

Normally it used to string multiple explosive charges together for simultaneous detonation while using only a single detonator, Det cord can be looped around a tree or post or other object to cut it neatly in half.

Requiring a detonator to set it off, detonating cord is sold in 10-, 20- and 50-meter lengths. A length of det cord can be spread out. When ignited it will cause 1d5points of damage to objects within a 1 meter radius. It can be doubled up and will cause an additional 1d5 points of damage up to a maximum of 4d5 points.

When used as a precision cutting charge, det cord will cause 15 points of STA or SP damage per meter used. It will have a “blast radius” of 1 meter from the cord.[1] 

 


Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 24, 2019 - 1:10pm

Fireline Explosive

Fireline is a specially developed version of det cord containing explosive powder. It is used to create a fire line by blowing up small trees and brush. It will create a 6-meter wide break while also throwing a layer of dust over nearby foliage.

When ignited, it will cause 3d10 + 10 points of damage to characters, creatures, and foliage withina 3-meters to either side of the cord. It will cause half damage to structures.

Fireline comes in 25-,50- and 100-meter lengths and can be doubled up, causing an additional 2d10 points of damage per 2-meter length. The line can be wrapped around large trees to cut them in half. [1]



[1] “Fireline Explosives (FLE),” National Wildfire Coordinating Group, https://www.nwcg.gov/term/glossary/fireline-explosives-fle

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 25, 2019 - 6:04am

Thanks. I'll use that in my landmines article where I'll tackle the infamous Zeb's mines such as the grasshopper and leapfrog mines.
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 25, 2019 - 6:25pm
Looking at the size of this potential story so far, it looks like I will need to split it into two parts.

Part I will give info to expand the Demolitions skill along with some history of explosives and real world effects.

Part II will give info on the effects of various explosives in game use including black powder, nitrogylcerin, dynamite, etc.

Here's the raw stuff on detonators:

Detonators

A detonator – or blasting cap – is needed to bringa bout the complete detonation of blasting explosives. They are explosive also, doing 1d10 points of damage if used alone. Blasting caps should be stored separately from explosives and are not inserted into the main explosive charge until it is time to use them. Most detonators are chemically, mechanically, or electronically initiated.[1]

Variable Timer/Detonator

One of the most common detonators is the variable timer. It can be set for 1 to 60 seconds, 1 to 60 minutes or 1 to 60 hours.

Acid Detonator Cap

Acid detonator caps are normally used to detonate plastid; however, they can be fitted into detonation devices in place of normal blasting caps.

Chemical Detonator

Chemical detonators are used when the Demolition specialist wishes the explosion to coincide with an influx of unusual quantities of liquids or gas. For instance, a chemical detonator can be set to explode if it gets wet, if too much oxygen gets into the air or a room, etc.

Counter Detonator Attachment

This tiny counter is inserted between the explosive and its detonator. It is preset to cause detonation once it is triggered a se tnumber of times.

For example, a counter attachment is set between 50 grams of TD-19 and its pressure-sensitive whip wire detonator. The bomb is placed behind a door in such a fashion that each time the door opens, the whip wire is triggered.

The counter is set at 10. The first nine times the door opens, the whip wire is triggered and the counter records it. The tenth time the door opens, the bomb explodes.

Light Detonator

Light detonators are larger than other types, about the size of a small human fist. These detonators are sensitive to light intensity and they can be set to detonate an explosive when a light is turned on in a room, when sunrise or dusk occurs, when a flash grenade explodes, when it detect ultraviolet light at a specific wavelength, etc.

Pressure Detonator

Pressure detonators contain either a small plate, a button, or a whip wire (or trip wire) that is set to key an explosion when a certain pressure is either exerted or released.

For example, a pressure detonator whip wire affixed next to a door will detonate its charge when the door is opened, pressure detonators placed under a dead Sathar body will explode when the body is moved, etc.

Radio Beam Detonator

Instead of using Det Cord, a radio beam detonator can link up to a total of 10 charges within a 100 meter radius of the primary charge. It can receive a radio beam from a signaling device, which comes with the detonator when purchased.




Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 25, 2019 - 6:27pm
I still have some work to do on the radio beam detonator.

I also want to add a detonator that will detect when a ship enters the Void, so it will trigger an explosion then.

Then, there are the old-fashioned burning fuses that should be included along with antique blasting machines -- i.e. the plunger style detonator seen in Looney Tunes or Hogan's Heroes.
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 25, 2019 - 6:34pm
I'm also going to include some information on explosion containment units -- devices used by bomb disposal units.

What follows are real world descriptions of equipment. I will have to convert them into game stats & names

Bomb Basket

The bomb basket is made up of “non-fragmentation ballistic composite material”. This offers a safety ring, to minimise the impact of the explosion. “The basket is made of fibre glass, and has a diameter of 24 inches, and height of 36 inches. It also has a nylon holding net, which is suspended inside the basket. It could deal with explosions resulting from 200 gm to 1.2 kg Trinitrotoluene (TNT),”[1]

 

Explosion Containment Units[2]

Should a bomb explode inside, tiny vents allow pressure to escape

Golan 0.03 - The Golan 0.03 type containeroffers an in-house storage and transportation of explosives and blasting caps. The Golan 0.03 container confines the blast effect of an explosion of up to 30 gram TNT charges or equivalent, located anywhere in the inner storage area.

Golan 3 - The Golan 3 explosive containment vessel is designed to safely remove or store large suspect pieces of luggage and to withstand the blast and fragmentation effects of accidental explosions of up to 3 kg (6.6 lbs.) of TNTcharges or equivalent. The Golan 3 is ideal for airport and public safety applications.

Golan 10 - The Golan 10 explosive containment vessel offers an in-house storage location of explosives and small caliber ammunition. The vessel also serves as a solution to store large suspicious objects. The Golan 10 is designed and approved by the DDESB to store explosive materials up to 10 kg (23 lbs.) of Net Explosive Weight (NEW).

Golan 15 - The Golan 15 explosive containment vessel offers a convenient and cost-effective solution for an in-house storage location of explosives and small caliber ammunition. As well as, a solution to store large suspicious objects. Golan 15 is designed and approved by DDESB to store explosive materials up to 15 kg (33 lbs.) of Net Explosive Weight (NEW).

Golan 25/45 - The Golan 25 and 45 explosive containment vessels offer a convenient and cost-effective solution for an in-house storage location of explosives and small caliber ammunition as well as, a solution to store large suspicious objects. The Golan 25 and 45 are designed and approved by DDESB to store explosive materials up to 25 (55 lbs.) and 45 kg (100 lbs.) (respectively) of Net Explosive Weight (NEW).

ARC-5GT- The ARC-5GT containment vessel contains explosions of up to 5 kg (11 lbs.) of TNT equivalent and is approved by the U.S. Department of Defense Explosives Safety Board (DDESB) with a Gas-Tight capability of up to 2.5 kg (5.5 lbs.) of TNT equivalent. 

The ARC-5GT withstands repeated detonations, can be operated bya remote control, robot, or manually. The vessel is provided with an air sampling capability and is available with a trailer.

ARC-8GT- The ARC-8GT vessel contains repeated blast effects of up to 8 kg (17.64 lbs.) of TNT equivalent. The Gas-Tight feature of the ARC- 8GT allows responding EOD units to mitigate Weapons of Mass Destruction that might contain radiological, chemical or biological agents. 

The vessel is equipped with an air sampling system. The ARC-8GT is Gas-Tight to the full explosive capacity of the vessel.

ARC-10GT- The ARC-10GT detonation chamber contains blast effects of up to 10 kg (22lbs.) of TNT equivalent. The ARC10-GT is DDESB-approved with a Gas-Tightc apability of up to 8 kg (17.64 lbs.) of TNT equivalent or 6 kg (13.22 lbs.) of C4. 

The Gas-Tight feature of the ARC-10GT allows responding EOD units to mitigate Weapons of Mass Destruction that might contain radiological, chemical or biological agents. The vessel is equipped with an air sampling system. The ARC-10GT is Gas-Tight to the full explosive capacity of the vessel.

 

 

 



[1] “With seven ‘baskets’, Bangalore police can now explode bombs safely,” DNA, https://www.dnaindia.com/bangalore/report-with-seven-baskets-bangalore-police-can-now-explode-bombs-safely-1428400

[2]“Explosive Containment Vessels Provide Protection Against Blast an dFragmentation,” Mistral Security, http://www.mistralsecurityinc.com/Media-Articles/Post/3145/Explosive-Containment-Vessels-Provide-Protection-Against-Blast-and-Fragmentation



Joe Cabadas

KRingway's picture
KRingway
April 26, 2019 - 3:13am
You might also want to include: acoustic detonator (i.e. something triggered by a certain type of sound signature, noise level, or voice pattern, etc) and possibly also a laser detonator (i.e. something triggered by a low-power line-of-sight laser beam; and/or a 'tripwire'-type beam).

Also, for explosives you might want to consider thermobaric ('fuel-air') types:


JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 26, 2019 - 5:17am
KRingway wrote:
You might also want to include: acoustic detonator (i.e. something triggered by a certain type of sound signature, noise level, or voice pattern, etc) and possibly also a laser detonator (i.e. something triggered by a low-power line-of-sight laser beam; and/or a 'tripwire'-type beam).

Also, for explosives you might want to consider thermobaric ('fuel-air') types:

 

Good ideas!


Joe Cabadas

KRingway's picture
KRingway
April 26, 2019 - 5:27am
Maybe also:

- a depth detonator (i.e. is set off when reaching a certain depth in a liquid)
- radiation detonator (set to go off if background radiation goes above a certain level. Maybe one version is set to go off when exposed to scanners/radar/EMP/etc)
- vacuum detonator (set to go off when exposed to a vacuum)


JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 26, 2019 - 5:30am
I coiuld also throw in a magnetic detonator
And, if I look at the Zeb's scanners, a shape detonator!
Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
April 26, 2019 - 7:14am
For the explosion containment vessels I'll need to add some inertia screen options.
Joe Cabadas

jedion357's picture
jedion357
April 30, 2019 - 5:24am
I like the vacuum and depth detonators.
I might not be a dralasite, vrusk or yazirian but I do play one in Star Frontiers!

KRingway's picture
KRingway
May 2, 2019 - 7:01am
Depth could also work for distances below ground or at varying levels of atmospheric pressure.

JCab747's picture
JCab747
May 4, 2019 - 2:28pm

Fume Class. Many explosives produce fumes. Ideally, this should be water vapor, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen. But a detonation also generates poisonous gases including carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides. Carbon monoxide damages the brain and central nervous system while nitrogen oxides form nitric acid that damages lung tissue.

In open air work, fumes are not of too much a consequence, but in a confined space, the demolition specialist would need to worry about the shockwave produced by any explosion but also poisonous fumes. In a confined space, the cloud of poison fumes persists for 1d5 turns. Any character who is within the primary or secondary blast radius – or enters the area after the explosion while the toxic cloud persists – will get poisoned.

A character who passes a current Stamina check will not be affected, nor will anyone in a gas mask. A shot of antitox will neutralize the poison so that no further damage is taken.

Explosives are rated from good, to fair, to poor when it comes to its fume class.

A fume class of good means the explosive only produces non-toxic vapors.

A fume class of fair means the explosive produces mildly toxic vapors that act as a S2/T4 poison. This type of explosive also produce slight smoke that lingers in the blast radius for the duration of the poisonous vapors. Characters who failed their Stamina check will also face a -5 percent modifier on all ability and skill checks for 1d10 turns due to coughing and blurred vision.

A fume class of “poor” would mean that the explosive creates a toxic smoke cloud of vapors that will last 1d10 turns. Any characters breathing in the fumes without the benefits of a filter mask will be poisoned, with the fumes acting as a S3/T6 poison. Additionally, character who failedtheir skill checks would face a  -10 percent modifier on all ability and skill checks for 1d10 turns.

Mining operations often have equipment to ventilate blast areas to disperse or neutralize any toxic clouds.

Joe Cabadas

JCab747's picture
JCab747
May 4, 2019 - 2:52pm

Grusome Effects. Most of these rules assume that a character is not holding an explosive or has one strapped to their person, like a suicide terrorist bomber. Or is the victim of a criminal demolitionist who has strapped an explosive collar around a character’s neck.

While rolling for damage might produce a low result – say five “1s” on a 5d10 roll for 50 grams of Tornadium D-19 -- the referee can rule that the explosion would kill or severely maim a character, up to and including dropping the Stamina score below -30.

Joe Cabadas

KRingway's picture
KRingway
May 5, 2019 - 3:21am
Or as rolling 5 on 5d10 is somewhat unusual, one could rule that the explosives failed in some way. Or instead have a rule that states that all explosives have a base damage, i.e. each 10 grams has a base damage of 10, plus the amount of dice required. For example: 50 grams of TD-19 would be 50 + 5d10.

JCab747's picture
JCab747
May 5, 2019 - 5:21am
KRingway wrote:
Or as rolling 5 on 5d10 is somewhat unusual, one could rule that the explosives failed in some way. Or instead have a rule that states that all explosives have a base damage, i.e. each 10 grams has a base damage of 10, plus the amount of dice required. For example: 50 grams of TD-19 would be 50 + 5d10.
 

Good point. There was the so-called "Underwear Bomber"...

From CNN and the Detroit Free Press:

AbdulMutallab, a Nigerian student, boarded a Northwest Airlines flight carrying more than 300 people from Amsterdam to Detroit on Christmas Day 2009 with a device hidden in his underpants. He was unable to detonate it as the airliner descended to Detroit Metro Airport. 
Passengers and crew overcame.AbdulMutallab. The incident caused burns to Abdulmutallab's genitals and legs
Joe Cabadas

KRingway's picture
KRingway
May 5, 2019 - 6:08am
Yeah, it's usually because the detonator fails. It's usually not a big explosion, but enough to set off the explosive charge - in most cases.

JCab747's picture
JCab747
May 5, 2019 - 11:45am

Amonium Nitrate/Fuel Oil (ANFO)

Originating in the 1950s, ANFO is one of the most widely used bulk industrial blasting agents in modern-day North America formining. A low-cost explosive, it is easy to produce, store, and transport.

Consisting of 94 percent ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and 6 percent fuel oil, it is produced as a dry powder that is safer to use than black powder. It typically requires a detonator to set it off.

ANFO has poor water resitance. Water will cause the blasting agent to dissolve. Water exposure results in the explosive agent either having very little energy or preventing a detonation from occurring at all.[1]

Since ammonium nitrate is a common fertilizer, ANFO products have often been called “fertilizer bombs.” A kilogram of ANFO will cause 10d10 points of damage in an open air blast, or 50 structure points when placed with a primary blast radius of 3 meters and a secondary blast radius of 5 meters. Each additional kilogram will cause another 25 Stamina points or 10 structure points in an open air blast or 20 structure points when placed.

The primary blast radius will extend by 1 meter for every 2 kilograms of ANFO used; adjust the secondary blast radius accordingly. As with other explosives, this damage and blast range progression does begin to decline with distance.

Water Resistance: Poor. Fume Class: Good. Shelf Life: 1-2 years.



[1] Konya, Anthony and Dr. Calvin J.Konya. “Blasting mechanics revisited: Characteristics of explosives,” Pit &Quarry, https://www.pitandquarry.com/blasting-mechanics-revisited-characteristics-of-explosives/, 20 March 2019.

Joe Cabadas